photosynthesis formula. Describe why NADPH is the reducing agent in the Calvin cycle. Absorbs the energy and moves an electron to a higher energy state. causes excitation of chlorophyll molecules. In the reaction centers during photophosphorylation, _______________. The carbon source for organisms that derive their energy from photosynthesis is ________. Step 1 In photosynthesis the reduction of CO2 to carbohydrate requires that both energy currency and a strong reducing substance (hydrogen donor) be in ample supply. What photosynthesis is most evident to us? Cyclic electron transport increases the production of ATP. a) the parenchyma cells of the roots, b) the xylem cells of the stem, c) the epidermal cells of the leaves, d) the mesophyll cells of the leaves. a) there is a one-way flow of electrons from photosystem I to photosystem II, b) ATP alone is produced, c) hydrogen ions accumulate in the thylakoid compartments, d)only electrons are transferred to hydrogen acceptors, e) water is not involved in any of the reactions. Rubisco is responsible for the addition of the carbon atoms needed for the formation of carbohydrates, but by itself, rubisco does not increase the amount of energy stored in the formed bonds. a) uses ATP and NADPH, b) involves RuBP, c) produces PGA, d) is called the Calvin-Benson pathway, e) requires light. These electrons reenter the photosynthetic ETC by plastoquinone. Yields NADPH as well as ATP. The absorbed sunlight provides the energy that drives electrons through the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Consists of large, light absorbing "head" containing a magnesium atom at its center and a long hydrocarbon "tail". In chloroplasts, as in mitochondria, ATP is synthesized by ATP synthase, a transmembrane protein powered by a proton gradient. What is the source of the electrons that reduce NADP during photosynthesis? A net energy drain: It results in the oxidation and loss, in the form of CO2, of carbon atoms that had previously been incorporated and reduced by the Calvin cycle, and second, it consumes ATP. For chlorophyll molecules that have been extracted from chloroplasts in the lab, this absorbed light energy is rapidly released, allowing the electron to return to its initial "ground" energy state. Which of the following compounds is involved in both the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis? What two defenses do plant employ to avoid stresses that occur when the Calvin cycle cannot keep up with light harvesting. Spell. (Ascorbate, carotene, and other antioxidants are able to neutralize reactive oxygen species. a) phosphoglycerate (PGA), b) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), c) phosphoglyceraldebyde (PGAL), d) lucose, e) oxaloacetate. a) in freshwater lakes, b) in the deep ocean, c) in the surface waters all over the ocean, d) along the shores. (very efficient), what happens when visible light is absorbed by a chlorophyll molecule. Photosynthesis captures just a small percentage of incoming solar energy. energizing of an electron of chlorophyll by a photon of light. STUDY. a) reduction of NADP, b) phosphorylation of ADP, c) photolysis of water, d) oxidation of chlorophyll, e) reduction of chlorophyll. Learn about photosynthesis with free interactive flashcards. Why is the Calvin cycle referred to as the "dark reactions". All of the following statements are true EXCEPT ____. 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